In this book, the text and the plates are equally important, and sometimes they seem to be independent. What he designs for Chaux is the model of a new social and urban organization. The shape of the buildings indicates the activity that takes place inside them. The shape of the city is the community’s symbol, around a common center. This is the second project. The first one had a squared plant. It is not the definitive project either, since what was finally built is different. 

Ledoux does not propose a city integrated with the landscape. The lay-out resembles a Roman settlement, with the cardo and the decumanus, but the references go beyond that. The horizontal axis existed already; it is the path linking the cities of Arc et Senans. The vertical axis is new, totally straight and has no end, it crosses the Loue River, the Chaux and the Perrousse forests. The horizontal axis is the relationship with the place, and the vertical axis is the project, symmetry axis of the planning.

Ledoux states in his book:
The intersecting line of the highest diameter crosses the Loue River, some very large prairies, the city, the forest, the Doubs river, the Geneva channel, and the Helvetian fields; to the left, the Mosa, the Mosela, the Rhin, the Antwerp harbor, and the North Seas carry until the Siberian deserts the early fruits, so desired by our trading and our crafts. O, inexhaustible source of richness! You are the product of all the others, thanks to you the natural recognition of the nations becomes more vivid, thanks to you fortunes become regular, empires grow and reach their highest splendors.

Walls of Paris ( enceintes de Paris or murs de Paris in French ), refers to the city walls that surrounded Paris as it grew from ancient times until the 20th century , built primarily to defend the city. Several successive city walls were built, with the exception of 1670, when Louis XIV ordered the demolition of the Louis XIII Wall , through 1785, when construction began on the Wall of the Farmers-General . The city walls of Paris include:

As Paris expanded over time, new walls were built to consolidate the existing city with new houses, gardens, and vegetable fields. Existing walls would eventually be destroyed and its site built up into a street or boulevard. Only a few sections of the Wall of the Farmers-General (pavilions of Claude Nicolas Ledoux ) and the Wall of Philippe Auguste survived. The walls' influence on modern Paris can still be seen on some of its major streets and boulevards such as:

Lutetia developed on the left bank of the Seine during Roman times, and to a lesser extent on the Île de la Cité. The right bank was uninhabitable mostly due to marshes. During the first barbarian invasions in 285, the people of Lutetia abandoned the left bank and took refuge on the Île de la Cité and destroyed the bridges. The eastern half of the island was protected by a wall, constructed of rocks collected from the Arènes de Lutèce .

    Elevation, composed of a double height coffered niche screened by four Ionic columns. The figure sculpture resting on the entablature of the portico represents Terpsichore, the muse of dancing, an appropriate choice as Guimard was a dancer at the Paris Opera

  Most of Ledoux's toll gates were destroyed in the French Revolution shortly after they were completed.

In this book, the text and the plates are equally important, and sometimes they seem to be independent. What he designs for Chaux is the model of a new social and urban organization. The shape of the buildings indicates the activity that takes place inside them. The shape of the city is the community’s symbol, around a common center. This is the second project. The first one had a squared plant. It is not the definitive project either, since what was finally built is different. 

Ledoux does not propose a city integrated with the landscape. The lay-out resembles a Roman settlement, with the cardo and the decumanus, but the references go beyond that. The horizontal axis existed already; it is the path linking the cities of Arc et Senans. The vertical axis is new, totally straight and has no end, it crosses the Loue River, the Chaux and the Perrousse forests. The horizontal axis is the relationship with the place, and the vertical axis is the project, symmetry axis of the planning.

Ledoux states in his book:
The intersecting line of the highest diameter crosses the Loue River, some very large prairies, the city, the forest, the Doubs river, the Geneva channel, and the Helvetian fields; to the left, the Mosa, the Mosela, the Rhin, the Antwerp harbor, and the North Seas carry until the Siberian deserts the early fruits, so desired by our trading and our crafts. O, inexhaustible source of richness! You are the product of all the others, thanks to you the natural recognition of the nations becomes more vivid, thanks to you fortunes become regular, empires grow and reach their highest splendors.

Walls of Paris ( enceintes de Paris or murs de Paris in French ), refers to the city walls that surrounded Paris as it grew from ancient times until the 20th century , built primarily to defend the city. Several successive city walls were built, with the exception of 1670, when Louis XIV ordered the demolition of the Louis XIII Wall , through 1785, when construction began on the Wall of the Farmers-General . The city walls of Paris include:

As Paris expanded over time, new walls were built to consolidate the existing city with new houses, gardens, and vegetable fields. Existing walls would eventually be destroyed and its site built up into a street or boulevard. Only a few sections of the Wall of the Farmers-General (pavilions of Claude Nicolas Ledoux ) and the Wall of Philippe Auguste survived. The walls' influence on modern Paris can still be seen on some of its major streets and boulevards such as:

Lutetia developed on the left bank of the Seine during Roman times, and to a lesser extent on the Île de la Cité. The right bank was uninhabitable mostly due to marshes. During the first barbarian invasions in 285, the people of Lutetia abandoned the left bank and took refuge on the Île de la Cité and destroyed the bridges. The eastern half of the island was protected by a wall, constructed of rocks collected from the Arènes de Lutèce .

    Elevation, composed of a double height coffered niche screened by four Ionic columns. The figure sculpture resting on the entablature of the portico represents Terpsichore, the muse of dancing, an appropriate choice as Guimard was a dancer at the Paris Opera

  Most of Ledoux's toll gates were destroyed in the French Revolution shortly after they were completed.

Anthony Vidler received his professional degree in architecture from Cambridge University in England, and his doctorate in History and Theory from the University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands. Dean Vidler was a member of the Princeton University School of Architecture faculty from 1965–93, serving as the William R. Kenan Jr. Chair of Architecture, the Chair of the Ph.D. Committee, and Director of the Program in European Cultural Studies. In 1993 he took up a position as professor and Chair of the Department of Art History at UCLA, with a joint appointment in the School of Architecture from 1997.

Dean Vidler was appointed Acting Dean of the Irwin S. Chanin School of Architecture of The Cooper Union in 2001, and Dean of the School in 2002. A historian and critic of modern and contemporary architecture, specializing in French architecture from the Enlightenment to the present, he has consistently taught courses in design and history and theory and continues to teach a wide variety of courses at The Cooper Union.  He stepped down from the Deanship in 2013.

As designer and curator he installed the permanent exhibition of the work of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux in the Royal Salt Works of Arc-et-Senans in Franche-Comté, France, as well as curating the exhibition, “Ledoux et les Lumières” at Arc-et-Senans for the European year of Enlightenment.  In 2004 he was asked to curate the portion of the exhibition “Out of the Box” dedicated to James Stirling, for the Canadian Center of Architecture, Montreal, and in 2010 installed the exhibition “Notes from the Archive: James Frazer Stirling,” in the Yale Centre for British Art, an exhibition that then travelled to the Tate Britain and the Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart in 2011. 

In this book, the text and the plates are equally important, and sometimes they seem to be independent. What he designs for Chaux is the model of a new social and urban organization. The shape of the buildings indicates the activity that takes place inside them. The shape of the city is the community’s symbol, around a common center. This is the second project. The first one had a squared plant. It is not the definitive project either, since what was finally built is different. 

Ledoux does not propose a city integrated with the landscape. The lay-out resembles a Roman settlement, with the cardo and the decumanus, but the references go beyond that. The horizontal axis existed already; it is the path linking the cities of Arc et Senans. The vertical axis is new, totally straight and has no end, it crosses the Loue River, the Chaux and the Perrousse forests. The horizontal axis is the relationship with the place, and the vertical axis is the project, symmetry axis of the planning.

Ledoux states in his book:
The intersecting line of the highest diameter crosses the Loue River, some very large prairies, the city, the forest, the Doubs river, the Geneva channel, and the Helvetian fields; to the left, the Mosa, the Mosela, the Rhin, the Antwerp harbor, and the North Seas carry until the Siberian deserts the early fruits, so desired by our trading and our crafts. O, inexhaustible source of richness! You are the product of all the others, thanks to you the natural recognition of the nations becomes more vivid, thanks to you fortunes become regular, empires grow and reach their highest splendors.

Walls of Paris ( enceintes de Paris or murs de Paris in French ), refers to the city walls that surrounded Paris as it grew from ancient times until the 20th century , built primarily to defend the city. Several successive city walls were built, with the exception of 1670, when Louis XIV ordered the demolition of the Louis XIII Wall , through 1785, when construction began on the Wall of the Farmers-General . The city walls of Paris include:

As Paris expanded over time, new walls were built to consolidate the existing city with new houses, gardens, and vegetable fields. Existing walls would eventually be destroyed and its site built up into a street or boulevard. Only a few sections of the Wall of the Farmers-General (pavilions of Claude Nicolas Ledoux ) and the Wall of Philippe Auguste survived. The walls' influence on modern Paris can still be seen on some of its major streets and boulevards such as:

Lutetia developed on the left bank of the Seine during Roman times, and to a lesser extent on the Île de la Cité. The right bank was uninhabitable mostly due to marshes. During the first barbarian invasions in 285, the people of Lutetia abandoned the left bank and took refuge on the Île de la Cité and destroyed the bridges. The eastern half of the island was protected by a wall, constructed of rocks collected from the Arènes de Lutèce .

In this book, the text and the plates are equally important, and sometimes they seem to be independent. What he designs for Chaux is the model of a new social and urban organization. The shape of the buildings indicates the activity that takes place inside them. The shape of the city is the community’s symbol, around a common center. This is the second project. The first one had a squared plant. It is not the definitive project either, since what was finally built is different. 

Ledoux does not propose a city integrated with the landscape. The lay-out resembles a Roman settlement, with the cardo and the decumanus, but the references go beyond that. The horizontal axis existed already; it is the path linking the cities of Arc et Senans. The vertical axis is new, totally straight and has no end, it crosses the Loue River, the Chaux and the Perrousse forests. The horizontal axis is the relationship with the place, and the vertical axis is the project, symmetry axis of the planning.

Ledoux states in his book:
The intersecting line of the highest diameter crosses the Loue River, some very large prairies, the city, the forest, the Doubs river, the Geneva channel, and the Helvetian fields; to the left, the Mosa, the Mosela, the Rhin, the Antwerp harbor, and the North Seas carry until the Siberian deserts the early fruits, so desired by our trading and our crafts. O, inexhaustible source of richness! You are the product of all the others, thanks to you the natural recognition of the nations becomes more vivid, thanks to you fortunes become regular, empires grow and reach their highest splendors.

Anthony Vidler | The Cooper Union


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